Stargardt disease is a common inherited single-gene retinal disease. The eyes are the visual organ which provides living organisms with a vision which enables several responses which are independent of vision. They are the paired organs which receive the stimuli to the brain in the form of the eye. It is inside the bony structure of the lacrimal bone of the maxilla. The eyes sit inside a protective socket known as orbit. There are 6 extraocular muscles which are helpful in an up-down, side-to-side and rotate the eyes movement. The white part of the eye is the sclera which is the most vital layer and covers the whole surface of the eye. Tears are the lubricant of the eye which is made up of 3 layers and these layers form a tiny tear film. The retina is the part of the eye that has special cells known as photoreceptors (the rods and cons). The meibomian gland is the other layer which is another part of the tear film. In this article, we are going to discuss Stargardt disease in detail, its causes, symptoms and its ayurvedic aspect in detail.
It is the most common childhood recessively inherited macular dystrophy, which is due to the genetic basis which is due to mutation of the ABCA4 gene and follows the autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. Stargardt is macular degeneration which usually affects adults. This chromosome encodes the retina protein which results in the accumulation of a fatty yellow substance which is known as Lipofuscin, which gets collected over the macula region. It is an inherited eye disorder which is a common form of macular dystrophy and is progressive vision loss and affected more than 30,000 people in the U.S. Decreased photoreceptors in the macula region are the main hallmark for Stargardt disease. Abnormal accumulation of the substance damages the cells which causes critical loss of central vision. It was first described by German ophthalmologist Karl Stargardt in 1909 which affects men and females both equally. It can be mimicked with autosomal dominant inheritance which is mainly due to defects in ELOVL4 and PROM1 gene which causes progressive vision loss. It is also known as fundus flavimaculatus which is a waste of the central area and forms a yellow-white pigment.
- It is a genetic disorder, which usually involves ABCA4 through recessive homozygous and heterozygous transmission.
- STGD1- Most common form which is the recessive type caused by the mutation of the ABCA4 gene.
- STGD4- rare dominant defect in the PROM1 gene
- STGD3- is dominated by the mutation of the ELOVL4 gene.
- Functional domains of ABCA4.
It is due to a genetic defect of the ATP binding transporter protein of the phototransduction cycle. It is due to the improper shuttling of Vitamin A throughout the retina and the acceleration of dimmers of vitamin A toxins. These dimmers slow down the formation of Vitamin A which leads to damage to Retinal cells and fluorescent granules which are known as Lipofuscin in the retinal pigmented epithelium.
It is an inherited disorder which commonly gets transferred from parents to children which is due to genetic variation in the ABCA4 gene. It causes damage to cone cells due to the accumulation of build-up waste products.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
- Unable to see things clearly and sharply
- Losing the ability
- Involuntary eye movements
- Black, hazy and blurry spots in the middle of the vision
- Loss of cells in the part of the retina progressively causes vision loss.
- There is a formation of fatty long chains which causes protein clumps to form which aggregate and build up in retinal cells and ultimately cause cell death.
- Losing the ability to see colors and adjust the changing of lights.
- Color vision testing
- Fluorescein angiography
- Fundus photography
- Optical coherence tomography
- Genetic testing
- Slit lamp
- There is no treatment for Stargardt disease in contemporary medical science.
- But there are three strategies which could slow down the progression which are reducing retinal exposure, avoiding excess vitamin A and lowering Lipofuscin.
- But gene therapy and stem cell therapy can be done.
- Protect your eyes by wearing sunglasses when going to bright light.
- Avoid too much vitamin A
- Don’t smoke cigarettes
- Vision Rehabilitation by using devices such as-
- Bifocal glass
- Electronic book
- Electronic eyeglasses
As we know, Stargardt disease is an inherited disease but it can be managed in ayurveda. In ayurveda, it is correlated with Beeja doshas, which means it is due to a defect in the BeejBhaga (sperm and ovum). Ashudh Artava and Ashudh Shukra (defected ovum and sperm) are the main causes of this condition. If there is a defect in the gametes (ovum and sperm) of the parents then the child also inherits this disease. When the baby is born the gamete (artava) is vitiated by imbalance doshas, as when pitta dosha gets vitiated it aggravates and causes many eye disorders. These doshas travel towards the sira (blood vessels) and when it reaches the upper part cause many dreadful diseases. Pitta dosha is usually located in the middle part of the body between the navel and heart and in eye disorders, alochaka pitta is located which manages good sight, promotes memory and instincts introspection. If there are any defects in the beej doshas there will be deformity and is seen in the fetus. For this planet ayurveda shared herbal remedies which are helpful and manageable for this disease.
HERBS USEFUL FOR STARGARDT DISEASE
Amalaki (Emblica Officinalis) is rich in vitamin C and is helpful in strengthening the immune system of the body, prevents rejuvenating the cellular system and is a good antioxidant and is helpful in preventing viral and bacterial ailments. It is helpful in pacifying the pitta doshas by its sweet taste and cool effects. Helpful in reducing the level of sugar in urine and helpful for heart diseases.
Vacha (Acorus calamus) has many medicinal properties which improve intelligence and memory. It is helpful in treating Vata disorders and useful in many psychological disorders. Useful in epilepsy and acts as a nerve tonic that balances Vata and Kapha doshas. Dissolves and digests ama doshas which are accumulated in the body. Rich in antioxidants and has many anti-inflammatory properties and promotes digestion.
Brahmi (Bacopa Monnieri) is a most powerful brain tonic which is helpful in promoting intelligence. It is helpful in Vata and Kapha doshas. Maintains normal blood pressure and is rich in antioxidants which damages free radicals and fights against various infections. Promotes proper digestion and has a bronchodilator effect and enhances memory, removes toxins from the body and maintains proper vascular muscle functions in the body.
Bhringraj (Eclipta alba) is an important ayurvedic herb which is usually used in the treatment of hair fall and in various medicinal purposes. It is helpful in balancing Vata and Kapha doshas which have the ability to strengthen the body and cure worm infestation and remove toxins from the body. Helps in the proper functioning of the liver and provides strength to the liver so useful in various liver diseases. It Acts as a rasayan which rejuvenates the body.
HERBAL REMEDIES BY PLANET AYURVEDA FOR STARGARDT DISEASES
Planet ayurveda is a renowned GMP-certified, U.S-FDA registered and ISO 9001:2015 certified ayurvedic company which is adhered to the objective of manufacturing the standard ayurvedic medicines which are already prescribed in ancient texts of ayurveda. The medicines which are prepared at planet Ayurveda are without any additives and preservatives or any other kind of chemicals which do not cause any side effects on one’s body. Products manufactured on planet Ayurveda are pure and devoid of any adulteration.
- BRAHMI GHRIT
- ANGEL EYE VITALE
- AMALAKI RASAYAN
- KAMDUDHA RAS (MOTI YUKT)
- SAPTAMRIT LOHA
1. Brahmi Ghrit
Brahmi Ghrit is one of the classical ayurvedic formulations which is prepared by planet ayurveda using various ingredients such as Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), Vacha (Acorus calamus), Ghee (Cow ghee) and many more. It is helpful in enhancing brain function and improving vision. Brahmi ghrit is helpful in boosting the memory and concentration of the eye and prevents the degeneration of the macula. Reduces the Vata doshas.
Dosage- 1 tsp twice daily after meals with warm water.
2. Angel Eye Vitale
Angel Eye Vitale is a poly-herbal formulation which is made by planet ayurveda using various ingredients such as Amla (Emblica Officinalis), Gotukola (Centella Asiatica), Bhringraj (Eclipta alba). These capsules are useful in all types of vision ailments and prevent diseases of the eye. Angel eye Vitale is helpful in restricting the deterioration of the macula and promotes vision. Regulates the alochaka pitta which promotes vision.
Dosage- 1 capsule twice daily after meals with plain water.
3. Amalaki Rasayan
Amalaki Rasayan is a single herbal preparation which is made by planet ayurveda using Amalaki (Emblica Officinalis). It is a rich source of Vitamin C. It enhances vision and is helpful in the treatment of vision loss. Prevents macular degeneration and rejuvenates the cells of the retina. Rasayan prevents the effect of aging and provides long-lasting intellectual and intelligence as well. Promotes the health of the eye.
Dosage- 1-2 capsules twice daily with plain water after meals.
4. Kamdudha Ras (Moti Yukt)
It is a classical ayurvedic formulation which is made by planet ayurveda using various ingredients such as Mukta Bhasma (Purified pearl), Shankh Bhasma, Shuddha Gairik, Giloy Satva (Tinospora cordifolia) and many more. These tablets are useful for ailments such as weakness and in chronic progressive diseases and helpful in promoting healthy vision and pacifying the pitta doshas.
Dosage- 1 tablet twice daily after meals with plain water.
5. Saptamrit Loha
Saptamrit Loha is a classical ayurvedic formulation which is prepared by planet ayurveda using ingredients such as Amalaki (Emblica Officinalis), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Loha bhasma (Calyx of iron) and many more. It has neuroprotective properties and is helpful in relaxing the optic nerve and it has a bioactive compound which is useful in increasing vision as it contains iron which is useful.
Dosage- 1 tablet twice daily with plain water after meals.
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Stargardt disease is a common inherited single-gene retinal disease. The eyes are the visual organ which provides living organisms with a vision which enables several responses which are independent of vision. It is the most common childhood recessively inherited macular dystrophy, which is due to the genetic basis which is due to mutation of the ABCA4 gene and follows the autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. In ayurveda, it is correlated with Beeja doshas, which means it is due to a defect in the BeejBhaga (sperm and ovum). Further, we discussed many herbal remedies by planet ayurveda which are made up of pure herbs and are useful without causing any side effects.