Charak Samhita is a Classical text on Ayurveda. In charaka samhita, he mentioned the medicines and their medicinal properties along with the diseases and their management. It consists of eight sthana which are Sutra sthana, Nidana Sthana, Vimana sthana, Sharira sthana, kalp sthana, Siddhi Sthana Indriya sthana and Chikitsa sthana.In this article, we will discuss about the second chapter of Nidana Sthana of charaka samhita.
This is the second chapter of the nidana sthana, Raktapitta is a disease which happens due to the Predominance of the Rakta and Pitta Dosha. It explains about the causes of the raktapitta which happens due to improper lifestyle, After that the signs and symptoms of the Disease. This condition can be managed with the help of Herbs Used for purgation and Emesis. Purgation is done for Upward Raktapitta and Emesis is done for Downward raktapitta. In this chapter, it will be explained how the pitta dosha vitiates the Rakta dosha and causes Raktapitta.
- Intake of the diet which consists of the grains like Yavaka, Koradusa and uddalaka.
- Food items which are sharp and Hot and with the legumes of the blackgram, horse gram and Alkali.
- Curd or Curd water
- Buttermilk or Gruel which is sour
- Intake of meat of buffalo, Pig, Sheep, cow and fish.
- Intake of the vegetables such as tubers, Dried potherbs,
- Excessive use of the Chutney and Salad of Radish, Mustard, karanja, garlic, Sigru, Madhusigru, Kharabusa, Bhustrna, Sumukha, Surasa, Kutheraka, Gandira, Kalamalaka, Parnasa, Ksavaka, and Phanijaka
- After-drinks of wine (Sura), Sauvira, tusodaka, Meirya, Medaka, Fermented beverage (Madhulaka), Sour beverage (Sukta), Intake of preparations of Kuvala and Badara.
- Preparations of Rice flour in excess
- Taking Milk which is unboiled very frequently or in excess
- Intake of rohini vegetable along with milk
- A Type of Pigeon (Kanakapota) is cooked with alkali and Mustard oil
- Excessive exposure to heat
- Milk with Kulattha, Ripen jambu fruit, Lakucha or badara.
Samprapti of Raktapitta
Due to above mentioned causes, the pitta dosha is vitiated and the rakta (Blood) exceeds its normal measure, Due to which the Pitta dosha while circulating in the whole body, reaches to the openings of the channels carrying blood hat originates from Liver and Spleen and Obstructs them which are heavy due to the congestion of blood and affects the body.
Pitta Dosha is called as Lohita Pita, It is termed as raktapitta because As It connects with blood, Affects it and also its smell and color is acquired.
Prodromal Symptoms of Raktapitta
- Aversion towards the food
- Improper digestion of food
- Eructations which is having Smell and taste of Sour gruel
- Urge of vomiting very frequently
- Disgusting Vomit
- General weakness
- Hoarseness of the Voice
- Burning sensation
- Feels like emittance of smoke through Mouth
- Smell of the Metal, Fish, Blood and Mucus in mouth
- Appearance of the feces, urine, Sweet, Saliva, nose secretion
- Excreta from the mouth of red, Green and Yellow Colour.
- Discolouration on the body parts
- Body pains
- In dreams vision of red, yellow, blue, black and brilliant objects.
- Aversion towards food
- Hoarseness of voice
Pathways Of Raktapitta
It has Two paths- Upwards and Downwards
In the persons with an increase of kapha dosha, it goes upward into contact with kapha and comes out or bleeds through Ear, Nose, Eyes and Mouth. In those which have an increased Vata Dosha, it comes out or bleeds through the passages of urine and Faeces. In the persons who have predominance of both vata and Kapha, it bleeds through both the Paths or all the orifices.
Sadya- Asadyata (Prognosis)
Among these paths of raktapitta, The one which is coming out from upwards is curable because it can be treated well by purgation with plenty of herbs.The one which comes from lower tracks is managed with emesis are palliable due to less number of applicable drugs. The rakta pitta coming out from both the ways is incurable because there is not proper applicability of both the emetic and purgative drugs.
In Early times, the vitiation of the Raktapitta emerges
To Pacify the emergent condition like fire in the Forest the appropriate action is needed and manage it with Saturating or desaturating soft, Sweet, Cold, Bitter and Astringent diet and Paste, Sprinklings, Bath, Touching, Emesis etc.
Raktapitta which bleeds upwards is curable because of availability and applicability of the Purgative herbs. Pugation is considered as the best for alleviation of the Pitta and also it is not ineffective for kapha. Sweet herbs are applicable here. So, The bleeding from the upper part is curable.
Bleeding from the lower part is palliable because the applicability of the emesis is slightly here and the herbs used are few. Emesis is not a good therapy for elimination of the Pitta Dosha and it is also ineffective for the Vata Dosha in association with Pitta Dosha. The herbs which are astringent and bitter are not applicable there. So, The Bleeding From lower parts are considered as palliable.
The Raktapitta which comes from both the pathways (Upper and Lower) are known as incurable. There is no evacuative measure applicable which comes out from the opposite paths to that of Haemorrhage. Elimination of the Dosa from the Opposite path is advised.
Some of the diseases which are curable are not managed Successfully because of the Lack of attendants and Equipments, Uncontrolled Self and due to fault of a physician. Emission of the improper remedy also makes some Diseases incurable. Gradually through the Curability and Palliability the Incurability arises.
- The bleeding which is black, Blue and Rainbow in color and stains cloth
- Fetid smell of the blood
- In large quantity
- Have all the complications
- Sees the sky and the objects as Red.
The Incurable Diseases should be avoided and the ones which are palliable should be managed with the efforts and the one which is curable is managed with the Tried Remedies.
In This Chapter the aetiology, Derivation of the nomenclature, Pre symptoms, Symptoms, Complications, the pathways of the Diseases which are two in number, Upper pathway and Lower pathway, The dosha’s associated, The sadya asadhyata (Curability) has been explained.