Upshaya and Anupshaya are an ancient Ayurvedic diagnostic procedure used to distinguish between illnesses. Many diseases have symptoms and causes that are similar. The Ayurvedic approach to disease diagnosis is a complex procedure that requires an understanding of numerous factors. Roga Pareeksha (ailment examination) and Rogi Pareeksha (patient examination) are the first steps in treatment and diagnosis. Vyadhi Vinishchaya and Vyavaccheda (Differential diagnosis) will be complete after these two principles are understood. This makes it easier for the Vaidya to select appropriate medications and Chikitsa (therapy). In this article we will discuss Upshaya in disease management along with Hetuvadhi and Viparitvadhi.
विद्यादुपशयं व्याधेः स हि सात्म्यमिति स्मृतः||
(Reference – Vaghvata Nidana Sthana 1/9)
Upshaya occurs when a treatment test results in a reduction in symptoms. It is Upshaya, for example, if heat fomentation improves joint discomfort. Anupshaya occurs when a therapeutic test results in an increase in symptoms. For example, if an oil massage (Snehana) worsens joint discomfort, it is Anupshaya. Upshaya refers to the use of medicine, nutrition, and regimens to provide pleasure to a person. Their actions may be directed directly at the cause, the disease, or both (i.e. the cause and the sickness).
उपशयः पुनर्हेतुव्याधिविपरीतानां विपरीतार्थकारिणां ाराणामुपयोगः सुखानुबन्धः||
Reference – Charaka Samhita Nidana sthana 1/10)
Interpretation of Shloka
Upshaya means giving pleasure to the person by use of medicine, diet and regimens. Their action may be directly against the cause or to the disease itself or to the both (i.e the cause and disease).
(Reference- Charaka Samhita Vimana sthana 4/8)
Interpretation of Shloka
When the diagnosis is foggy or the physician gets trapped while making a diagnosis, then the principle of upshaya should be applied.
Types of Upshaya
- Viprita – hetu ,viyadi ,hetuviprita
- Vipritaarthakari – hetu, vyadhi, hetuviprita
Interpretation Of Shloka
- When all the signs and symptoms are seen then, it may be difficult to diagnose the disease, that time the ‘Upshaya and Anupshaya’ will help to cause disease and prognosis of disease.
- It has indicative and prognostic abilities.
- It supports sickness differential analysis.
- The symptoms and side effects of a disease are hidden making it difficult to analyse this method of experimentation used to diagnose the condition.
- It suggests the best possible eating routine and way of life for battling against illness.
- It utilises experimental techniques for the therapeutic management of disease.
- For treatment of disease: This Upshaya and Anupshaya also help in the treatment of disease. e.g. Sandhi Pradeshi Vedana – it may be Upstambhita vata or Nirupstambhita vata, it is diagnosed only by Upshaya and Anupshaya after Snehan
Classification Of Upshaya
Shloka : 1
विद्यादुपशयं व्याधेः स हि सात्म्यमिति स्मृतः|
(Reference – Ashtanga Hridaya Nidana Sthana 1/7)
- Hetu viprita Aushadha (Antidotes to the cause of disease).
- Hetu viprita Anna (The disease-fighting drugs).
- Hetu viprita Vihar (Activities that are diametrically opposed to the source of disease).
- Vyadhi viprita Aushadha (The disease-fighting drugs).
- Vyadhi viprita Anna (Disease-resisting food).
- Vyadhi viprita Vihar (Activities that are diametrically opposed to the sickness).
- Hetu Vyadhi Aushadha (Medicines that are adverse to both the cause and the disease).
- Hetu Vyadhi Anna (Food that is adverse to both the cause and the disease).
- Hetu Vyadhi Vihar (anti-cause and anti-disease acts).
- Hetu vipritaarthkari Aushadha (Medicines that are comparable to the disease’s cause).
- Hetu vipritaarthakari Anna (Diet similar to the disease’s aetiology).
- Hetu Vipritaarthakari Vihar (Activities that are comparable to the disease’s cause).
- Vyadhi vipritaarthkari Aushadha (Medicines with disease-like properties).
- Vyadhi vipritaadhikari Anna (Food that is similar to the nature of the ailment).
- Vyadhi vipritaarthkari Vihar (Activities related to the disease’s nature).
- Hetu Vyadhi vipritaarthkari Aushadha (Cause and disease – related medicines).
- Hetu Vyadhi vipritaarthkari Anna (Food that is related to both the cause and the ailment).
- Hetu Vyadhi Vipritaarthkari Vihar (Activities related to the cause and the sickness).
|1.||Hetu Viparita||Use of Sunthi (ginger) in Kapha Jwara (Fever) due to cold consumption||Ingestion Mansrasa (meat juice) Jvara due to exertion||Using sleep deprivation at night in kapha vyadhi due to day sleep.|
|2.||Vyadhi Viparita||Use of Stambha drug Kutuj in atisara (Diarrhoea).||Use of red lentils (masoor) in diarrhoea.||Use of exercise in Sthoulya (obesity).|
|3.||UbhayaViparitaViparita||Use of Dashmoola in vataj sotha.||Use of butter milk in vata-kaphaja granthi.||Night sleep deprivation in Tandra due to oily food intake and day sleep.|
|4.||HetuVipritaarthkari||Upnah(poultice) with hot drugs in Pittja Vrana Shotha||Vidahi (inflammatory) diet in pitta Vrana||Use of fear in Vataja Unmada (insanity).|
|5.||VyadhiViparitaarthkari||Use of Madan Phala in Chardi (vomiting disorder).||Use of Milk in Atisara (Diarrhoea).||Vaman (emesis) in Chardi (Vomiting Disorder).|
|6.||UbhayaViparitaarthkari||Use of hot drug Agru in burns.||Use of alcoholic preparations in alcoholism.||Use of swimming in exercise induced Moodhvata.|
Role Of Upshaya And Anupshaya
- Snehana is advised based on the symptoms of Supti (sleepiness), Sankocha (hesitation, fear), and Kampa (shivering) in order to separate Urusthabha (muscular dystrophy) from Vatavyadhi. It is diagnosed as Vatavyadhi in cases of relief (Upshaya) and Urusthambha (muscular dystrophy) in cases of aggravation (Anupshaya). When symptoms are identical/similar, Upshaya and Anupshaya are beneficial in disease diagnosis.
- It aids in the differential diagnosis and management of diseases.
- It is used for disease diagnosis and prognosis.
- It aids in treatments by assisting in the planning and implementation of disease-specific food and lifestyle behaviours.
Difference Between Upshaya And Chikitsa
The words Aushada, Ahara, and Vihara are used by both Upshaya and Chikitsa. Upshaya should not be confused with Chikitsa, in Upshaya, the Aushada, Ahara, and Vihara are chosen at random and are not the best, whereas in Chikitsa, the physician will have carefully chosen the best. Sometimes the Aushada, Ahara, or Vihara prescribed may become Anupshaya, creating further discomfort or symptoms.
Advantages Of Upshaya
- They may be able to control the symptoms since they are hostile to the disease.
- It is a system for diagnosing illness; it aids in the planning of treatment for confirmed diseases.
- Despite their opposition to the disease, they may be able to halt its progression.
- Because they are similar to them, they may postpone the onset of the disease’s symptoms.
Roga Pareeksha and Rogi Pareeksha are crucial in Ayurvedic therapy protocols. In Roga Pareeksha, Nidana Panchaka assists in determining disease manifestation. Upshaya and Anupshaya are powerful Ayurvedic techniques for disease diagnosis and management. Upshaya and Anupshaya are required to devise preventive actions against future difficulties. They will be valuable in the diagnosis and prognosis of disease if used correctly. According to the articles, the disease manifestation can be halted and readily cured after the right usage of Upshaya and Anupshaya. As a result, good Upshaya knowledge is required for disease diagnosis. The illness stages can be well understood by Nidanpanchak, and disease formation can be prevented at any stage by knowing the stages of disease.